S'rî Krishna Caitanya Mahâprabhu - (1486-1533)


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S'rî Krishna Caitanya - Foreword.

S'rî Krishna Caitanya - An Introduction.

S'rî Krishna Caitanya - His Life.

S'rî Krishna Caitanya - His Teachings.

S'rî Krishna Caitanya - The Six Gosvâmîs.

S'rî Krishna Caitanya - Devotional Love.

Navadvîpa - Birthplace of S'rî Krishna Caitanya.

S'rî Krishna Caitanya - Links.

Short Wordlist


S'rî Caitanya - Foreword.
His Divine Grace, A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda, Founder-Âcârya of The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (Translator of S'rî Caitanya-Caritâmrita of Krishnadâsa Kavirâja Gosvâmî - The Pastimes of Lord Caitanya Mahâprabhu), writes in his preface:


'There is no difference between the teaching of Lord Caitanya presented here and the teachings of Lord Krishna in the Bhagavad-gîtâ. The teachings of Lord Caitanya are practical demonstrations of Lord Krishna's teachings. Lord Krishna's ultimate instruction in the Bhagavad-gîtâ is that everyone should surrender unto Him, Lord Krishna. Krishna promises to take immediate charge of such a surrendered soul. The Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is already in charge of the maintenance of this creation by virtue of His plenary expansion, Kshîrodakas'âyî Vishnu, but this maintenance is not direct. However, when the Lord says that He takes charge of His pure devotee, He actually takes direct charge. A pure devotee is a soul who is forever surrendered to the Lord, just as a child is surrendered to his parents or an animal to its master. 

In the surrendering process, one should:
1. accept things favorable for discharging devotional service,
2. reject things unfavorable,
3. always believe firmly in the Lord's protection,
4. feel exclusively dependent on the mercy of the Lord,
5. have no interest separate from the interest of the Lord, and
6. always feel oneself meek and humble.

The Lord demands that one surrender unto Him by following these six guidelines, but the unintelligent so-called scholars of the world misunderstand these demands and urge the general mass of people to reject them. At the conclusion of the ninth chapter of the Bhagavad-gîtâ, Lord Krishna directly orders, "Always think of Me, become My devotee, worship Me alone, and offer obeisances unto Me alone." By so doing, the Lord says, one is sure to go to Him in His transcendental abode. But the scholarly demons misguide the masses of people by directing them to surrender not to the Supreme Lord but rather to the impersonal, unmanifested, eternal, unborn truth. The impersonalist Mâyâvâdî philosophers do not accept that the ultimate aspect of the Absolute Truth is Lord Krishna. 

If one desires to understand the sun as it is, one must first face the sunshine and then the sun globe, and then, if one is able to enter into that globe, one may come face to face with the predominating deity of the sun. Due to a poor fund of knowledge, the Mâyâvâdî philosophers cannot go beyond the Brahman effulgence, which may be compared to the sunshine. The Upanishads confirm that one has to penetrate the dazzling effulgence of Brahman before one can see the real face of the Personality of Godhead.

Lord Caitanya therefore teaches direct worship of Lord Krishna, Who appeared as the foster child of the King of Vraja. He also teaches that the place known as Vrindâvana is as good as Lord Krishna because, Lord Krishna being the Absolute Truth, there is no difference between Him and His name, qualities, form, pastimes, entourage and paraphernalia. That is the absolute nature of Lord Krishna. Lord Caitanya also teaches that the highest mode of worship in the highest perfectional stage is the method practiced by the damsels of Vraja. These damsels (gopîs, or cowherd girls) simply loved Krishna without any motive for material or spiritual gain. Lord Caitanya also teaches that S'rîmad Bhâgavatam is the spotless narration of transcendental knowledge and that the highest goal in human life is to develop unalloyed love for Krishna, the Supreme Lord.

Lord Caitanya's teachings are identical to those given by Lord Kapila [SB, C3, 28-33], the original propounder of sânkhya-yoga, the sânkhya system of philosophy. This authorized system of yoga teaches meditation on the transcendental form of the Lord. There is no question of meditating on something void or impersonal. When one can meditate on the transcendental form of Lord Vishnu even without practicing involved sitting postures, such meditation is called perfect samâdhi. That this kind of meditation is perfect samâdhi is confirmed at the end of the sixth chapter of the Bhagavad-gîtâ, where Lord Krishna says that of all yogîs, the greatest is the one who constantly thinks of the Lord within the core of his heart with love and devotion.

On the basis of the sânkhya philosophy of acintya-bhedâbheda-tattva, which maintains that the Supreme Lord is simultaneously one with and different from His creation, Lord Caitanya taught that the most practical way for the mass of people to practice sânkhya-yoga meditation is simply to chant the holy name of the Lord. He taught that the holy name of the Lord is the sound incarnation of the Lord and that since the Lord is the absolute whole, there is no difference between His holy name and His transcendental form. Thus by chanting the holy name of the Lord one can directly associate with the Supreme Lord by sound vibration. 

As one practices chanting this sound vibration, one passes through three stages of development: the offensive stage, the clearing stage and the transcendental stage. In the offensive stage of chanting one may desire all kinds of material happiness, but in the second stage one becomes clear of all material contamination. When one is situated on the transcendental stage, one attains the most coveted position - the stage of loving God. Lord Caitanya taught that this is the highest stage of perfection for human beings.

Yoga practice is essentially meant for controlling the senses. The central controlling factor of all the senses is the mind; therefore one first has to practice controlling the mind by engaging it in Krishna consciousness. The gross activities of the mind are expressed through the external senses, either for the acquisition of knowledge or for the functioning of the senses in accordance with the will. The subtle activities of the mind are thinking, feeling and willing, which are carried out according to one's consciousness, either polluted or clear. If one's mind is fixed on Krishna (His name, qualities, form, pastimes, entourage and paraphernalia), all one's activities-both subtle and gross-become favorable. The Bhagavad-gîtâ's process of purifying consciousness is the process of fixing one's mind on Krishna by talking of His transcendental activities, cleansing His temple, going to His temple, seeing the beautiful transcendental form of the Lord nicely decorated, hearing His transcendental glories, tasting food offered to Him, associating with His devotees, smelling the flowers and tulasî leaves offered to Him, engaging in activities for the Lord's interest, becoming angry at those who are malicious toward devotees, etc. No one can bring the activities of the mind and senses to a stop, but one can purify these activities through a change in consciousness. 

This change is indicated in the Bhagavad-gîtâ (2.39), where Krishna tells Arjuna of the knowledge of yoga whereby one can work without fruitive results: "O son of Prithâ, when you act in such knowledge you can free yourself from the bondage of works." A human being is sometimes restricted in sense gratification due to certain circumstances, such as disease, but such directives are for the less intelligent. Without knowing the actual process by which the mind and senses can be controlled, less intelligent men may try to stop the mind and senses by force, but ultimately they give in to them and are carried away by the waves of sense gratification.

The eight principles of sânkhya-yoga - observing the regulative principles, following the rules, practicing the various sitting postures, performing the breathing exercises, withdrawing one's senses from the sense objects, etc.- are meant for those who are too much engrossed in the bodily conception of life. The intelligent man situated in Krishna consciousness does not try to forcibly stop his senses from acting. Rather, he engages his senses in the service of Krishna. No one can stop a child from playing by leaving him inactive; rather, the child can be stopped from engaging in nonsense by being engaged in superior activities. Similarly, the forceful restraint of sense activities by the eight principles of yoga is recommended for inferior men; superior men, being engaged in the superior activities of Krishna consciousness, naturally retire from the inferior activities of material existence.

In this way Lord Caitanya teaches the science of Krishna consciousness. That science is absolute. Dry mental speculators try to restrain themselves from material attachment, but it is generally found that the mind is too strong to be controlled and that it drags them down to sensual activities. A person in Krishna consciousness does not run this risk. One therefore has to engage one's mind and senses in Krishna conscious activities, and Lord Caitanya teaches one how to do this in practice.

Before accepting sannyâsa (the renounced order), Lord Caitanya was known as Vis'vambhara. The word vis'vambhara refers to one who maintains the entire universe and who leads all living entities. This maintainer and leader appeared as Lord S'rî Krishna Caitanya to give humanity these sublime teachings. Lord Caitanya is the ideal teacher of life's prime necessities. He is the most munificent bestower of love of Krishna. He is the complete reservoir of all mercies and good fortune. As confirmed in S'rîmad Bhâgavatam, the Bhagavad-gîtâ, the Mahâbhârata and the Upanishads, He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna Himself, and He is worshipable by everyone in this age of disagreement (Kali). Everyone can join in His sankîrtana movement. No previous qualification is necessary. Just by following His teachings, anyone can become a perfect human being. If a person is fortunate enough to be attracted by Lord Caitanya, he is sure to be successful in his life's mission. In other words, those who are interested in attaining spiritual existence can easily be released from the clutches of mâyâ by the grace of Lord Caitanya. 

The conditioned soul, engrossed in the material body, increases the pages of history by all kinds of material activities. The teachings of Lord Caitanya can help the members of human society stop such unnecessary and temporary activities and be elevated to the topmost platform of spiritual activities, which begin after liberation from material bondage. Such liberated activities in Krishna consciousness constitute the goal of human perfection. The false prestige one acquires by attempting to dominate material nature is illusory. Illuminating knowledge can be acquired by studying the teachings of Lord Caitanya, and by such knowledge one can advance in spiritual existence.

Everyone has to suffer or enjoy the fruits of his activity; no one can check the laws of material nature that govern such things. As long as one is engaged in fruitive activity, one is sure to be baffled in the attempt to attain the ultimate goal of life. I sincerely hope that by understanding the teachings of Lord Caitanya presented in S'ri  Caitanya-Caritâmrita, human society will experience a new light of spiritual life, which will open the field of activity for the pure soul' -- OM TAT SAT. (March 14, 1968)

S'rî Caitanya - Introduction.


In S'rîmad Bhâgavatam, Canto 7, Chapter 9, verse 38:

'This way according the yuga in question appearing in different incarnations as a human being, a saint, a god or an aquatic, do You protect all the worlds, sometimes killing the world its troublemakers in defense of the dharma, o Supreme Personality; in Kali yuga You are covered and therefore are You, being one and the same person, called Triyuga' [from being visible in the tree other yugas, see also Canto 11:5.32].

This, because in the fourth age (Kali) He manifests as the 'channa' (hidden or secret) avatâr. His existence in Kali-yuga is considered hidden because, unlike other avatârs does the Channa Avatâr not reveal Himself as an incarnation. Rather, He displays His pastimes (lîlâ) in the guise of His own devotee, allowing only His most intimate followers to know of His divinity. Still, those who study the scriptures will know who He is.

The Purânas [SB, C11-5: 20-33] explain that in Satya-yuga the Lord comes in a white color; in Treta, He is reddish; in Dvapara, a blackish; and in Kali, He manifests with a golden hue. S'rî Caitanya is distinguished by His golden color, as has been noted by all His biographers. Vedic and post-Vedic writings describe avatârs in considerable detail: their 'parentage', the town where they appear, the mission they seek to accomplish, and various specifics. Direct, corroborative statements about the divinity of S'rî Caitanya are found in the Mahâbhârata and S'rîmad Bhâgavatam, compiled centuries before S'rî Caitanya's birth.

An entire text that is considered part of the Atharva Veda and is known as the Caitanya Upanishad [see links] foretells His glories. The Krishna-yamala and Brahma-yamala specifically mention His mother's name and the town of His birth, Navadvîpa (West-Bengal). These two scriptures also relate His mission: propagating the Sankîrtan movement, which focuses on the congregational chanting of the holy name of God.

The Vayu Purâna says: "In the age of Kali, when the Sankîrtan movement is inaugurated, Krishna will descend as the divine son of Sachidevi." The Bhâgavatam substantiates the statement about S'rî Caitanya Mahâprabhu being the "golden" avatâr of Kali-yuga, and adds further information about the Sankîrtan movement: "In the age of Kali the incarnation of the Lord always chants the holy name 'Krishna' in the company of His associates. His complexion is not blackish but golden. The wise worship Him by chanting His name in congregation." (SB 11:5.32). Indeed,  S'rî Caitanya and His teachings of divine love through congregational chanting of the holy name are the hidden glory of India - India's actual glory.

S'rî Caitanya - His Life.


Listen to: 
Sâvarana S'rî Gaura Pâda Padme 
A prayer at the lotusfeet of  S'rî Gauranga
- (from Prârthanâ)  
read the lyrics

Caitanya Mahâprabhu was born on February 18, 1486. His birth name was Vishvambhar Mishra, but later He became popular as Nimai Pandit, and still later, after becoming a renunciate, as Caitanya Mahâprabhu. He was born in the holy town of Navadvîpa, also known as Mayapur, in West Bengal.

Mahâprabhu's parents - Jagannath Mishra and Sachidevi - had suffered through the deaths of their first eight children, all girls. The birth of Vishvarup, Mahâprabhu's elder brother, signaled a change in their lives. Soon after, Mahâprabhu was born.

When Mahâprabhu was about eight years of age, He began school under the tutelage of Gangadas Pandit. Two years later, in 1496, He became known as a great scholar, having mastered several languages, logic, hermeneutics (exegesis), and philosophy. It was in this year, too, that His elder brother, Vishvarup, took sannyas, the renounced order of life, and became a traveling mendicant. This event had a deep influence on young Mahâprabhu.

Four years later, in the year 1500, He married Lakshmipriya, and when she passed away untimely, He remarried: Vishnupriya, greatly respected in the Vaishnava community, became His second wife. In 1505 S'rî Caitanya Mahâprabhu traveled to Gaya, in Bihar province, to perform the funeral rites for His father. While in Gaya, He met Ishvara Puri, a great saint, and took initiation from him. It is said that immediately after initiation, by chanting the mantras His teacher gave Him, Mahâprabhu became God-intoxicated. According to the Vaishnava scriptures, spiritual sound virtually comes to life when it is bestowed upon a disciple by a genuine spiritual teacher. The chanter is thus absorbed in divine madness (divyonmâda)

S'rî Caitanya - His Teachings.


Lord Caitanya Mahâprabhu instructed His disciples to write books on the science of Krishna, a task which His followers have continued to carry out down to the present day. The elaborations and expositions on the philosophy taught by Lord Caitanya are, in fact, the most voluminous, exacting, and consistent, due to the system of disciplic succession. Although Lord Caitanya was widely renowned as a scholar in His youth, He left only eight verses, called S'rî S'rî S'ikshâshthaka (the eight verses, listen online / lyrics). These eight verses clearly reveal His mission and precepts. These supremely valuable prayers are translated herein:

1. cetah-of the heart; darpana-the mirror; mârjanam-cleansing; bhava-of material existence; mahâ-dâva-agni-the blazing forest fire; nirvâpanam-extinguishing; s'reyah-of good fortune; kairava-the white lotus; candrikâ-the moonshine; vitaranam-spreading; vidyâ-of all education; vadhû-wife; jîvanam-the life; ânanda-of bliss; ambudhi-the ocean; vardhanam-increasing; prati-padam-at every step; pûrna-amrita-of the full nectar; asvâdanam-giving a taste; sarva-for everyone; âtma-snapanam-bathing of the self; param-transcendental; vijayate-let there be victory; s'rî-krishna-sankîrtanam-for the congregational chanting of the holy name of Krishna.

Glory to the S'rî-Krishna-sankîrtana, which cleanses the heart of all the dust accumulated for years and extinguishes the fire of conditional life, of repeated birth and death. This sankîrtana movement is the prime benediction for humanity at large because it spreads the rays of the benediction moon. It is the life of all transcendental knowledge. It increases the ocean of transcendental bliss, and it enables us to fully taste the nectar for which we are always anxious.

2. nâmnâm-of the holy names of the Lord; akâri-manifested; bahudhâ-various kinds; nija-sarva-s'aktih-all kinds of personal potencies; tatra-in that; arpitâ-bestowed; niyamitah-restricted; smarane-in remembering; na-not; kâlah-consideration of time; etâdris'î-so much; tava-Your; kripâ-mercy; bhagavan-O Lord; mama-My; api-although; durdaivam-misfortune; îdris'am-such; iha-in this (the holy name); ajani-was born; na-not; anurâgah-attachment.

O my Lord, Your holy name alone can render all benediction to living beings, and thus You have hundreds and millions of names, like Krishna and Govinda. In these transcendental names You have invested all Your transcendental energies. There are not even hard and fast rules for chanting these names. O my Lord, out of kindness You enable us to easily approach You by Your holy names, but I am so unfortunate that I have no attraction for them.

3. trinât api-than downtrodden grass; sunîcena-being lower; taroh-than a tree; iva-like; sahishnunâ-with tolerance; amâninâ-without being puffed up by false pride; mânadena-giving respect to all; kîrtanîyah-to be chanted; sadâ-always; harih-the holy name of the Lord.

One should chant the holy name of the Lord in a humble state of mind, thinking oneself lower than the straw in the street; one should be more tolerant than a tree, devoid of all sense of false prestige, and should be ready to offer all respect to others. In such a state of mind one can chant the holy name of the Lord constantly. (Caitanya-caritâmrita, Antya-lîlâ 20.21)

4. na-not; dhanam-riches; na-not; janam-followers; na-not; sundarîm-a very beautiful woman; kavitâm-fruitive activities described in flowery language; vâ-or; jagat-îs'a-O Lord of the universe; kâmaye-I desire; mama-My; janmani-in birth; janmani-after birth; îs'vare-unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhavatât-let there be; bhaktih-devotional service; ahaitukî-with no motives; tvayi-unto You.

O almighty Lord, I have no desire to accumulate wealth, nor do I desire beautiful women nor do I want any number of followers. I only want Your causeless devotional service, birth after birth.

5. ayi-O my Lord; nanda-tanuja-the son of Nanda Mahârâja, Krijna; kinkaram-the servant; patitam-fallen; mâm-me; vijame-horrible; bhava-ambudhau-in the ocean of nescience; kripayâ-by causeless mercy; tava-Your; pâda-pankaja-lotus feet; sthita-situated at; dhûlî-sadris'am-like a particle of dust; vicintaya-kindly consider.

O son of Mahârâja Nanda [Krishna], I am Your eternal servitor, yet somehow or other I have fallen into the ocean of birth and death. Please pick me up from this ocean of death and place me as one of the atoms at Your lotus feet.

6. nayanam-the eyes; galat-as'ru-dhârayâ-by streams of tears running down; vadanam-mouth; gadgada-faltering; ruddhayâ-choked up; girâ-with words; pulakaih-with standing up of the hairs due to transcendental happiness; nicitam-covered; vapuh-the body; kadâ-when; tava-Your; nâma-grahane-in chanting the name; bhavijyati-will be.

O my Lord, when will my eyes be decorated with tears of love flowing constantly when I chant Your holy name? When will my voice choke up, and when will the hairs of my body stand on end at the recitation of Your name?

7. yugâyitam-appearing like a great millennium; nimejena-by a moment; cakjujâ-from the eyes; prâvrijâyitam-tears falling like torrents of rain; s'ûnyâyitam-appearing void; jagat-the world; sarvam-all; govinda-from Lord Govinda, Krijna; virahena me-by my separation.

O Govinda! Feeling Your separations I am considering a moment to be like twelve years or more. Tears are flowing from my eyes like torrents of rain, and I am feeling all vacant in the world in Your absence.

8. âs'lishya-embracing with great pleasure; vâ-or; pâda-ratâm-who have fallen at the lotus feet; pinashtu-let Him trample; mâm-me; adars'anât-by not being visible; marma-hatâm-brokenhearted; karotu-let Him make; vâ-or; yathâ-as (He likes); tathâ-so; va-or; vidadhâtu-let Him do; lampatah-a debauchee, who mixes with other women; mat-prâna-nâthah-the Lord of My life; tu-but; sah-He; eva-only; na aparah-not anyone else.

I know no one but Krishna as my Lord, and He shall remain so even if He handles me roughly by His embrace or makes me brokenhearted by not being present before me. He is completely free to do anything and everything, for He is always my worshipful Lord, unconditionally.

S'rî Caitanya - The Six Gosvâmîs.


Lord Caitanya Mahâprabhu experienced divine love, a mysticism of the highest order, and He communicated the confidential essence of this love to His most intimate followers. It was their responsibility to systematize this knowledge and to formulate a method for its wide distribution. After all, how would future generations understand what Mahâprabhu felt? And how would they attempt to recapture the experience? It were the six Gosvâmîs of Vrindâvan who took the challenge to heart, making Mahâprabhu's inner experience accessible.

Raghunath Das Gosvâmî (1495-1571) was the first to meet the Master. He was born in a non-brâhmana family (which made him distinct among the six Gosvâmîs) in the town of Chandpur (now S'rî Krishnapur), West Bengal. He was extremely wealthy, yet he had a distaste for material riches. Due to association with the great saint Haridas Thakur, Raghunath Das anxiously anticipated the day he could see S'rî Caitanya. This occurred shortly after Mahâprabhu took sannyas, in 1510, when the young Raghunath Das ran away from home to meet Mahâprabhu in Shantipur. Das Gosvâmî, as Raghunath Das came to be called, became the preeminent mystic in the Vaishnava tradition and composed beautiful poetry based on his meditation.

In South India, shortly after meeting Ragunath Das Gosvâmî for the first time, Mahâprabhu stayed at the house of Vyenkata Bhatta. At the time Vyenkata had a seven-year-old son named Gopal Bhatta. He would be trained by Mahâprabhu Himself and eventually grow up to be one of the major theologians of Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Gopal Bhatta Gosvâmî (1503-1578). 

As a South Indian brâhmana, Gopal Bhatta was keenly aware of the minutiae of day-to-day Vaishnava practice; thus he would be an invaluable asset to the mission of the Gosvâmîs. Along with Sanatan Gosvâmî, he compiled the "lawbook" for Gaudiya Vaishnavas, called the Hari-bhakti-vilas. The book details minute aspects of the tradition, including deity worship, temple rituals, and Vaishnava etiquette.

Rupa (1489-1564) and Sanatan (1488-1558) Gosvâmîs, also of South India roots, worked for the Islamic government in Bengal. Both were great scholars and leaders. S'rî Caitanya's wave of devotion swept them up too, and they were introduced to Mahâprabhu when He was on His way to Vrindâvan. Later, Rupa met the Master in Prayag (now Allahabad) and received instruction in rasa theology from Him. Sanatan met Mahâprabhu in Benares and there learned from Him the science of avatârs and the complex philosophy of how God manifests in this world. Rupa and Sanatan were prolific writers. Their contributions manifested in the form of drama, poetry, and philosophy. 

The work of Rupa and Sanatan was expanded by their young nephew, Jiva Gosvâmî (1513-1598), who is to this day considered one of India's greatest philosophers. He developed themes begun by his renowned uncles and highlighted the nuances of their theological ideals. Some say that Jiva, the youngest of the Six, met S'rî Caitanya on only one occasion, as a child. Still, this one meeting, along with the inspiration derived from Rupa and Sanatan, was enough to sustain Jiva throughout his productive career. 

Raghunath Bhatta Gosvâmî (1505-1579) offered no literary contribution, but was known for his beautiful singing and for his elaborate recitation of the Bhâgavatam. Indeed, the essence of Vaishnava theology centers on kirtan, the ecstatic singing of the holy name. Raghunath Bhatta Gosvâmî set the highest example by singing the glories of the Lord like no other.

Srînivâsa Âcârya composed 'the eight verses for the six Gosvâmîs', S'rî S'rî Shadgosvâmy-ashthaka (listen online /lyrics) and the lyrics are given below in a translation by Swâmi Prabhupâda: 


Pañca-tattva: (pañca: five) The reality of Lord Caitanya Mahâprabhu as consisting of Himself, Nityânanda,
Advaita Âcârya, Gadâdhara and S'rî Vasâdi, installed in a temple


1. I offer my respectful obeisances unto the six Gosvâmîs, namely S'rî Rupa Gosvâmî, S'rî Sanatana Gosvâmî, S'rî Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvâmî, S'rî Raghunatha dasa Gosvâmî, Srî Jiva Gosvâmî, and S'rî Gopala Bhatta Gosvâmî, who are always engaged in chanting the holy name of Krishna and dancing. They are just like the ocean of love of God, and they are popular both with the gentle and with the ruffians, because they are not envious of anyone. Whatever they do, they are all-pleasing to everyone, and they are fully blessed by Lord Caitanya. Thus they are engaged in missionary activities meant to deliver all the conditioned souls in the material universe.

2. I offer my respectful obeisances unto the six Gosvâmîs, namely S'rî  Rupa Gosvâmî, S'rî  Sanatana Gosvâmî, S'rî  Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvâmî, S'rî  Raghunatha dasa Gosvâmî, S'rî  Jiva Gosvâmî, and S'rî  Gopala Bhatta Gosvâmî, who are very expert in scrutinizingly studying all the revealed scriptures with the aim of establishing eternal religious principles for the benefit of all human beings. Thus they are honored all over the three worlds and they are worth taking shelter of because they are absorbed in the mood of the gopis and are engaged in the transcendental loving service of Râdhâ and Krishna.

3. I offer my respectful obeisances unto the six Gosvâmîs, namely S'rî  Rupa Gosvâmî, S'rî  Sanatana Gosvâmî, S'rî  Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvâmî, S'rî  Raghunatha dasa Gosvâmî, S'rî  Jiva Gosvâmî, and S'rî  Gopala Bhatta Gosvâmî, who are very much enriched in understanding of Lord Caitanya and who are thus expert in narrating His transcendental qualities. They can purify all conditioned souls from the reactions of their sinful activities by pouring upon them transcendental songs about Govinda. As such, they are very expert in increasing the limits of the ocean of transcendental bliss, and they are the saviors of the living entities from the devouring mouth of liberation.

4. I offer my respectful obeisances unto the six Gosvâmîs, namely S'rî  Rupa Gosvâmî, S'rî  Sanatana Gosvâmî, S'rî  Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvâmî, S'rî  Raghunatha dasa Gosvâmî, S'rî  Jiva Gosvâmî, and S'rî  Gopala Bhatta Gosvâmî, who kicked off all association of aristocracy as insignificant. In order to deliver the poor conditioned souls, they accepted loincloths, treating themselves as mendicants, but they are always merged in the ecstatic ocean of the gopis' love for Krishna and bathe always and repeatedly in the waves of that ocean.

5. I offer my respectful obeisances unto the six Gosvâmîs, namely S'rî  Rupa Gosvâmî, S'rî  Sanatana Gosvâmî, S'rî  Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvâmî, S'rî  Raghunatha dasa Gosvâmî, S'rî  Jiva Gosvâmî, and S'rî  Gopala Bhatta Gosvâmî, who were always engaged in worshiping Râdhâ-Krishna in the transcendental land of Vrindavana where there are beautiful trees full of fruits and flowers which have under their roots all valuable jewels. The Gosvâmîs are perfectly competent to bestow upon the living entities the greatest boon of the goal of life.

6. I offer my respectful obeisances unto the six Gosvâmîs, namely S'rî  Rupa Gosvâmî, S'rî  Sanatana Gosvâmî, S'rî  Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvâmî, S'rî  Raghunatha dasa Gosvâmî, S'rî  Jiva Gosvâmî, and S'rî  Gopala Bhatta Gosvâmî, who were engaged in chanting the holy names of the Lord and bowing down in a scheduled measurement. In this way they utilized their valuable lives and in executing these devotional activities they conquered over eating and sleeping and were always meek and humble enchanted by remembering the transcendental qualities of the Lord.

7. I offer my respectful obeisances unto the six Gosvâmîs, namely S'rî  Rupa Gosvâmî, S'rî  Sanatana Gosvâmî, S'rî  Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvâmî, S'rî  Raghunatha dasa Gosvâmî, S'rî  Jiva Gosvâmî, and S'rî  Gopala Bhatta Gosvâmî, who were sometimes on the bank of the Râdhâ-kunda lake or the shores of the Yamuna and sometimes at Varnsivata. There they appeared just like madmen in the full ecstasy of love for Krishna, exhibiting different transcendental symptoms in their bodies, and they were merged in the ecstasy of Krishna consciousness.

8. I offer my respectful obeisances unto the six Gosvâmîs, namely S'rî  Rupa Gosvâmî, S'rî  Sanatana Gosvâmî, S'rî  Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvâmî, S'rî  Raghunatha dasa Gosvâmî, S'rî  Jiva Gosvâmî, and S'rî  Gopala Bhatta Gosvâmî, who were chanting very loudly everywhere in Vrindavana, shouting, "Queen of Vrindavana, Râdhârânî! O Lalita! O son of Nanda Maharaja! Where are you all now? Are you just on the hill of Govardhana, or are you under the trees on the bank of the Yamuna? Where are you?" These were their moods in executing Krishna consciousness.


S'rî Caitanya - Devotional Love.



The essence of S'rî Caitanya's teaching is bhakti, or devotional love for Krishna. In the second verse of his famed sutras on bhakti, Shandilya defines bhakti as "exclusive and intense loving attachment to the Lord." The Vaishnava sage Nârada elaborates upon this definition in his Nârada-bhakti-sutra, where He says, "Bhakti consists of offering one's every action to the Supreme Lord and feeling extreme distress in forgetting Him." [Chapter 2, sutra 19

The very first book [Canto 1] of S'rîmad Bhâgavatam defines bhakti as parama-dharma, or "the highest and most satisfying function of the soul." Bhakti is thus paramount in Vaishnava thought. 

The concept of bhakti is found in the writings of the South Indian Alvars [Alvar means one who is "immersed" in the experience of God, the omnipresent mysterious One], who belonged to India's earliest organized Vaishnava tradision, Srivaishnavism. It is also found in the North, as is amply represented by the works of Rupa Gosvami, whose bhakti-rasa theory is at the very core of Gaudiya Vaishnavism. Bhakti became prominent in 15th- and 16th-century India, which witnessed a "bhakti renaissance."

Coincidentally, during this same period the Western world experienced its own renaissance - one that moved in the opposite direction. If the Indian renaissance emphasized devotion to God, the Western one focused on empirical learning and material progress, on science and technology. In essence, Western materialism came to the fore, and spirituality receded to the background.

The European Renaissance is often remembered as a period of growth, a journey toward self-sufficiency and self-discovery. To characterize these times, historian Jules Michelet coined the term "rebirth". Those were times of a newfound awakening of man, when he was able to escape his preoccupation with religion and superstition and to become truly progressive by focusing on material nature, on the body, and on the world around him. Man moved toward materialistic complexity, leaving spirituality and simple living as a thing of the past.

Most of India has been greatly influenced by bhakti and bhakti's practitioners. This may be because bhakti addresses something fundamental in man, and because the opposite - a renaissance moving toward material progress - while advantageous in some ways, ultimately leaves one spiritually barren, in being without a soul. 

Navadvîpa - Birthplace of S'rî Krishna Caitanya.


Listen to: 
S'rî S'achî-Sutâshthakam: 
Eight prayers glorifying the Son of S'rîmatî S'achi Devî
read the lyrics

Navadvîp is a large trading center of regional importance to the handloom cloth industry. It is situated about 65 miles north of Kolkata (Calcutta), connected to it by road, river, and rail. More importantly, Navadvîp is famous as the birthplace of S'rî Caitanya, who is also known as Gaur and Gauranga, the "golden" incarnation. 

S'rî Caitanya is nondifferent from S'rî Krishna, hence Navadvîp (Mayapur) and the lîlâ of Gaura (Caitanya) and that of Krishna are mystically connected. Vaishnavas reverently refer to the thirty-two-mile Navadvîp/Mayapur region as Gaura-mandala.

In 1063 c.e., Navadvîp became the capital of Bengal under the Hindu rule of Lakshmanasena, but in 1202 it was conquered and destroyed by Muhammed Bakhtiar Khilji. Bengal then passed under Islamic rule. Despite social friction, Hindus and Muslims lived there together. Navadvîp, which was a famous seat of Sanskrit learning, became a stronghold of orthodox brahmanism. It was into this environment that S'rî Caitanya appeared.

Literally hundreds of sites connected to S'rî Caitanya Mahâprabhu's pastimes are found throughout the area. The Yoga-pitha, where Mahâprabhu was born, today houses deities of Him and His associates. The spot where He was born is daily visited by pilgrims. Nearby is Shrivas Angan, the house of Shrivas Thakur, where S'rî Caitanya inaugurated the Sankîrtan movement. 

Historically, Navadvîp is considered to have been an area consisting of nine islands. Thus it derives its name: nava (nine), dvîpa (islands). Many believe "the nine islands" refer to nine spiritual islands to be perceived only by those who have attained the topmost realization: because nine islands, as such, are nowhere to be found. Pilgrims generally tour the area of "nine islands" in the following sequence: Antardvip, Simantadvip, Godrumdvip, Madhyadvip, Koladvip, Ritudvip, Jahnudvip, Modadrumadvip and Rudradvip.

In an esoteric sense, the islands correspond to the nine processes of devotional service (bhâgavata dharma): hearing about God, chanting of Him, remembering Him, serving His lotus feet, worshiping Him, praying to Him, assisting Him, befriending Him, and sacrificing everything for Him.

The Rediscovery of S'ri Caitanya's Birthplace.
By the 19th century, few were aware of the importance of Lord Caitanya's life and mission; Muslim conquerors and the passage of time had all but obliterated S'rî Caitanya from history. This was soon to be corrected by a single individual named
Bhaktivinode Thhâkur (1838-1914). An avid follower of Caitanya's teachings, Bhaktivinode set out to rediscover the Lord's birthplace. 

To Bhaktivinode's surprise, the village that his contemporaries knew to be Navadvîp was only one hundred years old and could not possibly be the same Navadvîp in which S'rî Caitanya had appeared. There were diverse opinions, and some said that the Lord's birthplace was now under the Ganges, which had changed its course since the 15th century.

But Bhaktivinode was relentless, and he soon heard of a place northeast of the town then considered Navadvîp. The mysterious old village in question was governed by Muslims. Bhaktivinode soon realized that this was the actual Navadvîp (Mayapur) and sought to confirm this theory with available evidence. Strong proof came from two maps made by British pilots who had navigated the Ganges.

Bhaktivinode found important leads also in regional scriptures. For example, in Narahari Chakravarti's Bhaktiratnakara he read that the courtyard of Shrivas Pandit, where S'rî Caitanya inaugurated the congregational chanting of the Mahâmantra, [listen online / lyrics] was situated one hundred dhanus (200 yards) to the north of the "House of God". The courtyard of Shrivas still exists, as it did in S'rî Caitanya's time (and in Bhaktivinode's as well); it was thus relatively easy to determine the site of S'rî Caitanya's birth. Furthermore, according to the Caitanya-bhagavata, the Muslim governor of Navadvîp was offended because he was able to hear the chanting from Shriva's house while sitting in his own home; it is said that because of this he ordered his men to break the musical instruments of the "Hindu Heathens". This information aided Bhaktivinode in his discovery of S'rî Caitanya's birth site. The evidence was tallied, and it was augmented by further geographical and archeological studies made by Bhaktivinode himself. 

In an attempt to get spiritual confirmation of the site's authenticity, Bhaktivinode brought to the area his old and ailing teacher, Jagannath das Babaji. Babaji Maharaj, although incapacitated, began to jump in ecstacy and cry profusely in love of God. Such an outpouring of devine love convinced Bhaktivinode, perhaps more than the hard, external evidence, that this was indeed S'rî Caitanya's birthplace. [Krishna Bhajan composed by Bhaktivinode Thakur, listen online to: S'uddha Bhakata / lyrics ]

S'rî Caitanya - Links.


S'rî Caitanya-Caritâmrita of Krishnadâsa Kavirâja Gosvâmî - The Pastimes of Lord Caitanya Mahâprabhu
Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Network
S'rîmad Bhâgavatam. (Bhâgavata Purâna) "The Story of the Fortunate One", by Krishna-Dvaipâyana Vyâsa, to the translations of S'rî S'rîmad A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda (first 9 cantos) and other pupils (cantos 10, 11 and 12), prepared for the Internet by Anand Aadhar Prabhu.
Bhagavad Gîtâ As It Is - A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda
Bhagavad Gîtâ of Order - Anand Aadhar Prabhu
[in Dutch] Levensbeschrijving van His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda
Caitanya Upanishad
Some excerpts about Krishna Chaitanya, taken from the volumes of "Sathya Sai Speaks"
[in Dutch only] Krishna en de Zingende Filosoof (translated: Krishna and the Singing Philosopher - 'The Philosophy and Music of the Caitanya Vaishnavas' by Anand Aadhar Prabhu)
[in Dutch] Krishna's Spel in Vraja en Mathurâ, by Hayeshvar Das 
[in Dutch] Krishna's Spel in Dvârakâ, by Hayeshvar Das 
About Gurus and Their Teaching This article critically surveys the value of eastern gurus and their teachings in western society, by Anand Aadhar Prabhu
Reincarnation and the Fear of Time by Anand Aadhar Prabhu. Do we return to this world? Must we do so? Where did we get the idea from that this could be the reality? Why would it be important to think about it? Are we afraid of time? These pages discuss the subject of reincarnation in the light of the christian doctrine and rebirth of culture and the duality of modern multicultural time-consciousness and its psychological fears of time.
The Spiritual Essence by Anand Aadhar Prabhu. To the essence of spirituality the question is first of all: what is it? Is it New Age, is it religious, is it a cult, is it egoism staring for a selfrealization without compassion? What defines spirituality actually? What is this self that one has to realize? Where does the soul come in? This article revises the concept of spirituality against the light of ancient vedic values at the one hand and modern natural science at the other hand.
Filognosy and Terms by Anand Aadhar Prabhu. Filognosy means love for knowledge. There is knowledge of how to make a living and manipulate matter. This knowledge is subject to changes and is considered relative. There is also knowledge of how to live peacefully, keep your mind together, sacrifice for a good cause and attain to togetherness and spirit. This latter knowledge is classical, found in the oldest books, is immutable and is apart from some translation as fixed as the sun, the moon and the celestial sky. This knowledge is considered absolute: we cannot change its reality of eternal time. Filognosy is about this latter type of knowledge. 
Devotional Music; Krishna Bhakti music by S'rîmad Bhâgavatam.
The bhajans or devotional chants are all written by vaishnav âcârya's. Each one of them, here presented with their original melodies, has the power of the great Krishna mantra, the Mahâmantra. Singing these songs of devotion is an essential tool for liberation in our modern time. It restores the balance with ones divine nature and concentrates the mind on the Fortunate One. The files are made in such a way that singing and playing along and learning the texts is as easy as can be.
His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda - S'rî Caitanya Mahâprabhu and S'rî Krishna  & S'rîla Vyâsadeva - by Stephen Knapp
Bhaktivedanta Memorial Library: about Bhaktivinode Thakur and other spiritual Leaders.
*S'rîla Bhaktivinoda Thakura
*The Six Gosvâmîs
The Hidden Glory of India by Steven J. Rosen. The Hidden Glory of India is a feast for the eyes. This mini-coffee table book presents an overview of the Vaishnava religious tradition, part of the Hindu or Indic complex of religions. Specifically, this volume focuses on the Vaishnavism of Chaitanya, whose movement arose in Bengal and spread throughout northern India in the sixteenth century -- eventually reaching almost all countries beginning in the 1960s due to the work of the late A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupâda who established the Hare Krishna movement.
Hare Krishna.org: Website of the Hare Krishna Movement.
Sanskrit Glossary by S'rîmad Bhâgavatam

Verses by Akbar - The Victor of my heart:
Hail Thee, O Chaitanya - the victor of my heart. Mark the rhythm of this mystic dance, in lofty ecstasy quite alone. Merrily sounds the tabor, and the cymbals' notes keep time.
The joyous band following him sing and dance merrily, merrily.
He steps a pace or two onwards, in His dancing gait, and knows no rest. For he is intoxicated with his own over-flowing joy.
O my heart's Lord, how can I express the love I have for thee?
Shah Akbar craves a drop from the sea of Thy love and piety."

(quoted in D.C. Sen. 1922 Chaitanya and His Age. Calcutta: University of Calcutta Press.) 

Friedrich Nietzsche:
"I could believe only in a God who understood how to dance".

Short Word-list.

Âcârya: bona fide, controllable, refutable, selfrealized, spiritual teacher (guru) who instructs by example representing the paramparâ.
Acinthya-bhedâbheda-tattva: Lord Caitanya's doctrine of Krishna as the "inconceivable oneness and difference" of God and His energies.
- The heuristic, the rule of thumb of the  Caitanya-vaishnava who poses: He is Me, but I am not Him; He is the unity in the manifold of the to Him only qualitatively equal parts and parcels; He is the Person of God that is the universe, of which I am only a part kalâ (ekatvena prithaktvena bahudhâ
B.G. 9.15).
Avatâra: descend of the Supreme Lord. Two kinds: vibhûti- and âves'a - avatâras: more or less powerful (channa, svayamrûpa and Vishnu-tattva-avatâra, gunâvatâra, yugâvatâra, ams'a-avatâra, purusha-avatâra, lîlâ-avatâra, manvantara-avatâra (see SB. 2: 7, for a description of Vishnu-avatâras) [see: Bhagavadgita.org for an enumeration of the various avatâras, with pictures]
- A plenary expansion of the Lord.
- The empowered devotee of the Lord.
- Deductive process of the descending of the (Super-) soul in matter.

Bhâgavata-dharma: devotional service in nine divisions: s'ravanam (listening), kîrtanam (singing), Vishnu-smaranam (remembering), pâda-sevanam (visiting, helping), arcanam (worship of the idol), vandanam (prayer, japa), dâsyam (deliver service), sakhyam (friendship), âtmâ-nivedanam (surrender); (see SB: 7.5: 23-24).
- Also in six: 'Therefore unto You, o Best of the Worshipable, do I offer my obeisances with prayers and perform I worship, do I work for You, do I remember You, attend to Your refuge and do I always listen to the talks about You; how can without such devotional service unto You in all these six forms a person attain the
bhakti that is there for the best of transcendence.' (SB: 7.9.50).
Bhakti: bhakataH = devotee; bhakta = devotee; bhaktaH = devotee; bhaktaaH = devotees; bhaktaanukaMpinaaM = compassionate to the devotees; bhakti = devotion, worship; bhaktiM = devotional service; bhaktiH = in devotional service; bhaktimaan.h = devotee; bhaktiyogena = by devotional service; bhakteshhu = amongst devotees; bhaktyaa = in full devotion; bhaktyupahritaM = offered in devotion.
Chaitanya: Consciousness, intelligence, spirit, energy, enthusiasm.
Caitanya: ('life force') name of the incarnation of Krishna as Krishna-bhakta 1486 in Navadvîpa, West Bengal. Also named Mahâprabhu (: 'the great master') Krishna-Caitanya en Gauranga. Spoken as: Tsjètanja.
- An avatâra who ± 500 years ago in India appeared to teach mankind the yuga-dharma (the method of realization valid for a certain era or yuga of our time, knowing the chanting of the holy names of God, to fight the corrupting influence of kali-yuga. Although He was Krishna Himself, did he play the role of Krishna's devotee, to show us how to awaken our love for Him.
- Reformer of the vedic culture to fight the false authority of dry book wisdom and the caste-system. In de West positioned against impersonalism and voidism.
- The incarnation of the Lord who descended into this world to teach by means of the
sankîrtana-movement how to love God.
Caitanya-caritâmrita: the book of Krishnadâsa Kavirâja Goswâmî about the life and teachings of Lord Caitanya, the Lord of Vedic Reform.'The New Testament' of the Caitanya-vaishnava written in the sixteenth century.
Caitanya-vaishnavas: school of devotees of Lord Vishnu that follow Caitanya, based on the vedic conclusion: Caitanya is the inscrutable unity in the diversity (acinthya-bhedâbheda-tattva).
Gosvâmî(s), Six: 'master of the senses',
title for an âcârya. Six great wise of Vrindâvana, the intimate disciples of Caitanya Mahâprabhu. Raghunath Das Gosvâmî, (1495-1571), Gopal Bhatta Gosvâmî (1503-1578), Rupa Gosvâmî (1489-1564), Sanatan Gosvâmî (1488-1558), Jiva Gosvâmî (1513-1598), Raghunath Bhatta Gosvâmî (1505-1579). 
Divyonmâda: expressions of godconscious folly or divine madness [see also
SB 10: 47-12 with footnote
Dvîpa: 'separate area, island or continent'. There are seven dvîpas as for the continents of the earth. Also Brahmâ's lotus, the galaxy, is described as a dvîpa. The eurasian continent is known as Jambhûdvîpa. (see also varsha and S.B. 5.1:33, 5.20, and 10.63: 37) There is also a division of nine dvîpas, nava-dvipa, named after the sons of Âgnîdhra: Nâbhi, Kimpurusha, Harivarsha, Ilâvrita, Ramyaka, Hiranmaya, Kuru, Bhadrâshva and Ketumâla. These constitute the different parts of India or bhârata-varsha later ruled by nine of the hundred sons of Rishabha (see S.B. 5.2: 19-21 and 11.2: 19).
Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare / Hare Râma, Hare Râma, Râma Râma, Hare Hare: the mahâ-mantra or great saying of liberation.
Krishna and Râma are names of the Lord and with Hare one adresses the inner energy of the Lord. The singing of these names is especially recommended for this time. (listen to the Mahâmantra-bhajan online / lyrics).
Kirtana:  loudly chanting together. Second part of the ninefold process of devotional service. San-kirtan or communal chanting is also used to indicate the preaching of the holy names: Lord Caitanya's sankirtana movement. 
Krishna: (Krsna) the All-attractive One. Cowherd, warlord, lover, vedic sovereign. Vishnu-avatâra. Is recognized as the purusha, the Original Person of God from whom Brahmâ, the Creator originated. Is considered the most important, most complete, Supreme Personality or descend of God. Literally: dark, because of the hue of his grayish-black skin. Is also called Hrisikesha as the Master of the Senses, Govinda and Gopala as the protector of the cows, Vâsudeva as the son of Vasudeva, Yogishvâra as the lord of Yoga and Hari as the Lord.
- Krishna - consciousness (natural consciousness) is that state of consciousness that results from the devotional service to Lord Krishna.
- The name of the hero and teacher in the old vedic time
s before He was known as the Vishnu-avatâra [see also SB 6.9:44&45]
Kshîrodakas'âyî Vishnu: third
purusha-avatâra: the form in which Garbhodakasâyi Vishnu enters the heart of each separate living being, in the individuality of each atom and even in between the atoms. He is the Paramâtmâ, the local aspect of the omnipresent Supersoul.
Mahâmantra: ('the great mantra'), the song of redemption, Hare Krishna Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare, Hare Râma Hare Râma, Râma Râma, Hare Hare; called Mahâ because of the fact that it can be as well as aloud as softly, alone as well as together be sung or chanted. Broadcasted by Caitanya Mahâprabhu as the remedy to liberate the material man in Kali-yuga from the deluding power of matter and to awaken God and the ecstasy of a spiritual life.
Mâyâ: (not-this; what is not): that what is not, the deluding quality of the material is, also called maha-maya; separateness from
- Because of her does, by identifying itself with the deluding material energy (ahamkâra), the individual soul think itself the lord and supreme enjoyer over the creation; that is to say: with the body (the senses), the mind and the material intelligence, with the consequence of losing the eternal bond (svarupa) with the Lord, the thus conditioned soul indulges in the pursuit of worldly pleasure and gets because of this more and more entangled in the cycle of birth and death (samsâra).
- Bewilderment; the forgetfulness about ones relation with
Mâyâvâdî: With this name are all adherents indicated of the two main philosophies known as impersonalism, or sankarism (preaching oneness of the soul with Brahman), and the nihilism (also known as the philosophy of voidism), that is related to Buddhism (which denies the existence of God).
- But mainly is this title used for those to whom the absolute truth is without a form, personality, intelligence, senses etc., and who therefore reject the existence of God as the Supreme Personality, or who think that the form and activities of the Supreme Lord would be subject to the influence of
mâyâ, the deluding material energy. (the term mâyâvâdî can also be used as an adjective (singular) meaning 'typical for mâyâvâdî's'.)
- (one speaking in illusion) Nonofficial spiritual teachers or non-
âcâryas who do not instruct by example, or who are not capable of giving one a better stability in transcendence.
- Spiritual teachers outside an by the Lord enforced disciplic succession.
- Therapists and other mental healthcare people who deny
Krishna, but despite of that want to give spiritual directions.
- Narrowly defined: adherents of impersonalism (oneness, sankarisme) and nihilism (voidism, denial of god and soul).
- False teachers and preachers, prophets, cheaters and/or charlatans who allure people with nice discourses, but estrange them from God and their fellow man by some or another cult.
- Someone following the misery of vedic heresy which found its beginning with king Arhat who misinterpreted the example of Rishabadeva after His disappearance (
see SB. 5.6: 9).
- Follower of bhuddism.
Nârada-bhakti-sutra: Nârada's eighty-four jewel-like aphorisms on devotion, known as the Nârada-bhakti-sutra, reveal the secrets of love of God - what it is, what it isn't; what its effects are; what helps or hinders our progress along the path; and much more. For the sincere seeker of life's ultimate goal, the Nârada-bhakti-sutra is essential.

Purusha-avatâras: the first expansions of Krishna as the original person, three in number, involved in the creation, maintenance and dissolution of the material universe. (see also S.B. 2.7). These are the primary expansions of Lord Vishnu: Kâranodakas'âyî Vishnu (Mâhâ-Vishnu) lies within the Causal Ocean and breathes our innumerable univeses; Garbhodakas'âyî Vishnu enters each universe and creates diversity; Kshîrodakas'âyî Vishnu (the Supersoul) enters into the heart of every created being and into every atom.
Râma: (source of joy) the Highest Enjoyer of eternal Bliss.
- Incarnation of Krishna, also called Râmacandra: the Vishnu-avatâra who together with Hanuman and his monkey-hordes and His eternal companion brother Lakshmâna (Sankarshan, Balarâma and Nityânanda) defeated the demon Râvana, to free Sîtâ, His wife who was abducted by the demon (see
SB 9:10 & 11).
- Another name of Balarâma.

Rasa: (literal: state of love, relation, mood, emotion, mellow): ecstatic emotional relation with Krishna; relation of the Lord with the living beings:
seven indirect (by S'rîla Rûpa Gosvâmî in the Bhakti Rasâmrita Sindhu 2.5.115 -116):
* anger (raudra), wonder (adbhuta), ghastliness (bibhatsa), dread (bhayânaka), humor (hâsya), chivalry (vîra) and compassion (dayâ) and five direct main rasa's:
* the neutral (santa), the servant-Master-relation (dâsya), friendship (sâkhya), the parent-child relation (vâtsalya), the amorous relation (sringâra).
Marital (mâdhurya) is distinguished srngâra in:
* svakhya, mature and
* parakhya, youthful, indirect means distorted by temporality. Direct means experienced to the full in the liberated state.
* Also in five described in the Bhâgavatam
7.1: 30-32 as: (30) Of in lust, hatred, fear, affection and devotion having a mind absorbed in the Supreme have many given up the sin and by that attained the path of liberation. (31) The gopis with their lusty desires, Kamsa out of fear, S'is'upâla and others out of hatred, many Kings out of kinship, Krishna's family out of affection and you and us through bhakti did so o King. (32) Anyone but Vena would adopt one of these five in regard to the Original Person and therefore should one by any means fix ones mind on Krishna.
* Monier Williams dictionary: (...) the taste or character of a work, the feeling or sentiment prevailing in it (from 8 to 10 Rasas are generally enumerated, viz. {s'ringâra}, love; {vîra}, heroism; {bîbhatsa}, disgust; {raudra}, anger or fury; {hâsya}, mirth; {bhayânaka}, terror; {karuna}, pity; {adbhuta}, wonder; {s'anta}, tranquillity or contentment; {vâtsalya}, paternal fondness; the last or last two are sometimes omitted.
* The sap or juice of plants, juice of fruit, any liquid or fluid, the best or finest or prime part of anything, essence, marrow, elixir, soup, serum, semen.
* Also mentioned in the Bhâgavatam, Canto 10, in verse
17 of chapter 43 where Vyâsa describes the different ways of seeing Krishna stepping forward to wrestle for justice, explained by S'rîla S'rîdhara Svâmî in quoting the verse:
raudro'dbhutas'ca s'ringâro
hâsyam vîro dayâ tathâ
bhayânakas'ca bîbhatsah
s'ântah sa-prema-bhaktikah
"(There are ten different moods:) fury (perceived by the wrestlers), wonder (by the men), conjugal attraction (the women), laughter (the cowherds), chivalry (the kings), mercy (His parents), terror (Kamsa), loathing (the unintelligent), peaceful neutrality (the yogîs) and loving devotion (the Vrishnis)."
* S'rîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Thhâkur quotes the following Vedic statement: raso vai sah rasam hy evâyam labdhvânandî bhavati. "He Himself is rasa, the taste or mellow of a particular relationship. And certainly one who achieves this rasa becomes ânandî, filled with bliss." (Taittirîya Upanishad 2.7.1)
* S'rîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî quotes a further verse to explain the word rasa:
vyatîtya bhâvanâ-vartma
hridi sattvojjvale bâdham
svadate sa raso matah
"That which is beyond imagination, heavy with wonder and relished in the heart shining with goodness - such is known as rasa."
Râsa-lîlâ: the so called râsa-dance (râsa means game or sport or dance). Famous dance of Krishna with the gopîs at night outside of Vraja (the vicinity where he grew up). Erotically charged. Reason of the great renown of the Bhâgavatam, especially the tenth canto chapter 33 of the Summum Bonum, in India.
Ratha-yatra: festival of the chariot in which Krishn as Lord Jagannâtha is taken around the city placed on a cart, pulled by the devotees.
Raudra: anger as a rasa (indirect).
Sankîrtan: preaching of His glory directly 'mouth to mouth' or indirectly through the scriptures. Founded by S'rî Caitanya Mahâprabhu.
Varsha: area, dominion, land marked out by mountain ranges. There is a - galactic, universal, supernatural, holistic - central area named Ilâvrita-varsha where Lord Brahmâ sits on the mountain Meru and where Lord S'iva as the only man is there to the happiness of the Supreme Personality. Next to that there are eight varshas stretching to all sides of which Bharata-varsha also is the name of India. (see also dvîpa, SB 5.16 and 17)